CREATION OF THE MUNICIPALITY OF BOKOD
By virtue of the Philippines Commission Act No. 48 dated November 22, 1900, Local Civil Government was established in 19 townships of the Province of Benguet. Three of which were in Ambuklao, Daklan, and Bokod. Later, under Executive Order No. 24 dated March 23, 1910 signed by W. Cameroon Forbes, Township of Bokod was created while Daklan and Ambuklao became two of its ten barangays.
On June 18, 1966, under Republic Act No. 4695, the Municipality of Bokod, along with the other twelve municipalities, comprised the newly created Province of Benguet.
When Benguet separated from the old Mountain Province and became a province in 1967, Bokod was classified as third class municipality due to its real property tax declaration from the National Power Corporation. After a law was passed exempting the Ambuklao Hydro Electric Plant and Binga Hydro Electric Plant from paying the real property taxes to municipality, Bokod was declared fourth class in 1977. It became sixth class in 1986, fifth class in 1996 up to 1998 and back as fourth class in 1999 to 2007.
Originally, there were seven settlements of Bokod, namely: Poblacion or Central, Ambuklao, Pito, Bisal, Daklan, Tikey, and Karao. Eventually, Bokod was divided into ten barangays: Poblacion, Ambuklao, Pito, Bobok-Bisal (combined with the related sitios of Bobok, Otbong and Kawal), Daklan, Bila, Tikey, Nawal, Karao, and Ekip.
Bokod is entirely within the Central Cordillera Reservation, mandated by proclamation No. 217 since February 16, 1929. It is found along the southern part of Benguet at approximately 120° 40” to 120°50” east longitude and 16°20” north latitude. It is bounded on the north by Kabayan, on the south by Itogon, on the west by Atok, and on the east by Kayapa, Nueva Vizcaya. Bokod is the second largest municipality of Benguet with a land area of 48, 830 hectares of the total land area of 275,258 hectares.
The 57-kilometers concreted and winding road leading to Bokod from Baguio City via Barangay Ambukao is passable by any type of vehicular transport during the dry season with an average of two hours. However, it may take six to eight hours of rough and bumpy ride interspersed with hiking through mud and wading through some water during rainy season. It may even take one and a half to two days hike. Typhoon and heavy rains often induce landslides resulting to the isolation of the municipality. It could also be reached via the historic Halsema highway and via Buguias-Kabayan. From Manila, Bokod is about 320 kilometers northwards.
The municipality of Bokod is the second largest of the thirteen municipalities comprising the Province of Benguet. It constitutes about 18.73% of the Province’s total land area. It has a total land area of 48, 830 hectares. Since barangay boundaries are not yet fixed, thus the areas per barangay are just approximate. Poblacion has an approximate area of 6, 440 hectares or 13.19% of the 48, 830 hectares. The remaining 86% are considered rural areas.
Being a reservation area and due to the presence of Ambuklao Hydro-Electric plant, Bokod becomes a part of its watershed area. Moreover, all lands within the territorial jurisdiction of the municipality are all public lands; hence subjects to development restriction such as non-alienable and non-disposable. Based on land classification prepared by the Department of Natural Resources (DENR), Bokod’s lands areas are classified into production forests, agro-forest, agricultural, alienable and disposable.
The soils of Bokod is composed of five (5) different soil types namely: Ambassador Series Daclan series, Annam complex, rough mountain lands and undifferentiated mountain soils, Ambassador silt-loam covers the whole of Daclan and part of Nawal, Ambuclao, Poblacion, Tikey, Karao, and Bila covering about 5071.172 hectares. Daclan clay covers part of Ambukao and Nawal comprising a total of 9212.966 hectares. Guimbalaoan-annam complex embraces the whole of Ekip and a part of Bila, Karao, Poblacion and Pito covering 6061.162 hectares. Rough mountain soil covers greater portion of Bobok and Ambuklao, total of 6586.463 hectares.
Bokod is both an agricultural and forest reserved area. Being a mountainous area, mountain peaks, ridges, and valleys are prevalent in the area. Some of these peaks significantly reach an elevation up to 2, 098, (Mt. Yabong) 2029, (Mt. Poodan) 2, 314, and (Mt. Pack 2290 meters above sea level.
Bokod is characterized by rugged mountainous terrain with patches of gently sloping terrain along or near riverbanks and along the foothills and mountains.
Generally, almost half of the total land mass has slopes greater that 18% and the other half with grades more than 30%. Forest reserve areas may reach a slope of 50% or more and 85% to some extent. Due to its mountainous terrain, creeks and natural depressions are the common features seen as one travels to Bokod. The main drainage or catchments area, however, is the Ambuklao reservoir/ Dam impounding the water of Agno River. Benguet Pines, Melina and Alnos are dominant vegetation. Fruit trees and agricultural crops such as rice, sayote, camote, lettuce, cassava and potatoes also add up to the vegetative cover of the municipality
The municipality’s climate belongs to the type I climate classification characterized by two pronounced seasons, the wet and dry season. The dry season starts in November and lasts until April while the wet and rainy season extends from May to October.
Coldest months in the municipality are felt in December, January, February especially when it is occasionally covered by fog that lasts for several hours in several days. During these months, the temperature is relatively very cold reaching a minimum temperature of 12°C. April and May are the warmest months with a maximum temperature as high as 27°C.
Early people mostly from the northeast, specially the Tinek (Tinoc) culture areas, first settled the scope and bounds of the present Bokod municipality.
Tinek warriors or hunters founded Daclan. Later some of their comrades intermarried with the people of Batan (Kabayan) who, by oral accounts, were mostly earlier arrivals from the Tinek areas.
Ambuklao was settled by the Ibalois of Kalanguya extract or a mixture from the point of origin near what is known today as modern Kabayan. Later, many of them intermarried with the people of Bisal and Poblacion (the Central Bokod).
The Iowaks who were the relatives of the Domolpos (Tinongdan, Itogon) and Sadipang (now upper eastern Binga, Itogon) people of sitio Beneng of Bokod-Bisal barangay. From Beneng, the Iowaks spread into the other settlements especially to neighboring Bisal, to Central Bokod, and to the eastern flank of the Karao-Ekip belt, getting themselves culturally “absorbed” in the process since they were the most liberal and non-endogamic of the early Ibokot settlers.
Early Bokod Central was occupied by Tinek descendants too but most of them were third or fourth generation Kalanguyas or Kalanguya-Ibalois whose parents and grandparents had some generations roots in the Amlimay (Buguias); then the second homeland of most Kalanguyas who moved away from Tinek, Benaljan.
In later years, more Kalanguyas left their southern Ifugao homes to settle in Nueva Viscaya until reaching Caranglaan, Nueva Ecija. In these waves of movement, Palanza (Bila) was founded and so with barangay Pito.
The Ingwaan–speaking people occupied early Karao after an agreement with the Bokod and Daclan villages that they will help in preventing the entry of the busols into the Bokod territories. The Ikaraos are reputed in history as the descendants of the archers Ituy and Panuypuy; the only tribes not subjugated by the Spaniards in the lowland Magat culture areas.
Migration and Settlement Patterns
Traced as the common ancestry origin of the early settlers of most of the barangays in the municipality, particularly Daklan, Tikey, Poblacion and Ambuklao, is Tinek (Tinoc) or Kabayan.
The early people of Nawal are said to have originated from the river valley settlements along the Agno River. Meanwhile, Bobok-Bisal’s early settlers were traced to have arrived from the old Ambuklao settlement, the present site of Ambuklao Dam.
For Pito, outlying areas of Ekip, and Palansa in Bila, its early inhabitants are known to have originated from Nueva Vizcaya.
The succeeding settlers of the municipalities were the Karaos and the Kankanaeys. The first group inhabited the community of Karao while Kankanaeys from neighboring northwest communities migrated to Nawal and intermarried with Bokod residents such as the case of Pito.
By tradition, the indigenous people of Bokod did have names for distinction, but only one-name without carrying a family name. The use of family names became practical only during the later part of the colonial era.
From the community elders who were respondents to the C/TWG investigation as well as existing records of the barangays, the following bits of information on genealogical accounts of the indigenous people of Bokod have surfaced.
Salaid (maiden name), a great grand daughter of Kerrel (the warrior) through his daughter Bingkowan’s marriage to Daklan of Tinek is the ancestor of the Esnara and Ingosan families.
Macay is the ancestor of the Bonskel, Kemino, and Lomerez families with the Fransisco, Pesit, Teli, Seb-ag, Shagul, and Sulet families in the generations before them that traced their roots to this common ancestor.
Shansali, a great grandfather of the Agosto, Alfredo, Almas, Almesa, Andres, Angel, Arinos, Bangsalan, Bansen, Basatan, Belto, Cadmoli, Celino, Cenon, Codnil, Cosing, Dayotao, Feliciano, Gondayao, Joseph, Lamsis, Mesa, Molintas, Moshao, Olipe, Pabdiyan, Pagadang, Pais, Pio, Pitdongay, Pocol, Rafael, Salamo, Salasa, Sanche, Suayan, Suminsin, Tamawa, Tawaki, and Wesday families; is the ancestor of Acdaman, Adoyao, Astor, Baniwas, Basco, Bastos, Bati, Beli, Bennet, Bested, Beto, Bias, Bulasao, Busdagan, Campo, Capus, Catimo, Celis, Colas, Cospo, Dennis, Esikan, Fausto, Felix, Giutawit, Igme, Kompedes, Kuwan, Macadio, Madilat, Mencion, Mendoza, Morao, Nadnaren, Nuepe, Pigden, Pingkian, Pintiano, Sab-it, Sabongan, Samonte, Sanggoy, Santos, Shael, Sinas, Solima, Suanding, Taliyap, Tawaki, Terio, and, Tomat families, and their extended families: Abanse, Arsenio, Balagtas, Balidjo, Barton, Beli, Beto, Bilag, Bulso, Bunay, Catanes, Corpin, Cosme, Cospo, Dipas, Fausto, Fernando, Kadio, Kimayong, Kinshiman, Macay, Mencion, Mentos, Minong, Moites, Nileng, Nuepe, Olman, Orasing, Pitas, Salasa, Samonte, and Sulima families. On the other hand, the Alam-am, Almas, Atelba, Atoney, Banasen, Bankac, Berang, Bestelan, Bongdey, Bugnay, Butangel, Cahosa, Camilio, Castaneda, Chamtil, Contalis, Cuilan, Daro, Dindin, Dunas, Estanes, Guzman, Inso, Kebaso, Kinupac, Kumangan, Masiong, Mendoza, Ngiyatao, Saril, Shadin, and Tacio, families are forerunners of the above generation that traced their roots to this common ancestor.
Pingad is the ancestor of Aval, Badete, Balasbas, Baso, Cayas, Godio, Kimino, and Salbaro families, and their extended families: Amyao, Chimcas, Costing, Kisod, Ngadiwat, Pacdit, and Shongkit families. The Ali-iw, Asungkal, Bantigi, Cadias, and Pokshol families are forerunners of the above generation that traced their roots to this common ancestor.
Kipadios married to Dep-ang, is the forebear of the Oldico family with the Badogo, Dintan, Galasgas, Pinga-oy and Pinshono families as forerunners of their generation that traced their roots to this common ancestor.
Dambis married to Pag-ok, had no known offspring but any family name may exist bearing the same could in some way trace their origin to tjis ancestor.
Shangayo (maiden name) is the ancestor of the Koseph and Al-al families and the generations before them.
Velasco is the name prominently pronounced from historical accounts having maintained herd of cattles far and wide and was said to maintain “bagaens” that tend to the flocks up to the extremities of the ancestral domain, but whose descent has not been fully established as of the preparation of this ADSDPP.
Bangan (maiden name) is the ancestor of the Sholongen, Sako-ot, Towao, Dew-dew, Pasial and Malamol families.
Toh-toh is the ascendant of the Baon, Bayaki, Bidaoy, Babodo, Contales, Cosalan, Dino, Kanas, Kayman, Keking, Kinangsan, Lampaso, Naney, Osdava, Shosa, and Sumisin families; and the ancestors of the Amistad, Bias, Bincoan, Codles, Palano and